Registering rights to land including land registration systems, the concept of indefeasibility and title insurance, modern registration using databases. Descriptions of land. Natural Boundaries, Water boundaries; Riparian and littoral rights; High and low water mark; Ad medium filum aquae: Erosion, accretion and avulsion; Excavation and fill adjacent to natural boundaries; Navigable waters and determination of navigability; Boundaries defined by artificial lines; Subdivisions; Condominiums (including boundaries, common property, administrative framework, structure, fees and governance); Strata plans; Air Space plans; Mineral interests, Mining, placer claims and claim staking; Petroleum and natural gas interests, Well site leases; Special surveys. Function of professional regulators; Purpose of codes of ethics and standards; Negligence; Disciplinary process; Common causes for disciplinary actions. Role of coordinates in retracement and as evidence; Surveys of parcels under a land registry system and under a land titles system. Offshore boundaries and maritime zones; Leases at sea. The offshore including maritime zones and international boundaries and the law of the sea. The Cadastre. Indigenous title and land claims.
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