Please choose ONE question, and write at least THREE paragraphs, each paragraph should have at least FIVE sentences. Avoid fluffy introductions like “Since the dawn of time, many have wondered about ethics…” or “Aristotle was born in…”. Just get right to answering the question with DETAIL.
1. Definition of the Good. First, with reference to Hammurabi, Amenemopet, or the Apology, explain the basic ideas of dogmatism and relativism, using a contemporary example for each— don’t just copy-paste a definition, put it in your own words. Then, show how Socrates, in the Euthyphro dialogue, proves that both of these ideas are tautological and incorrect, and how the good (piety) must have an intrinsic and intersubjective definition. Finally, that idea of intersubjective and intrinsic good with Aristotle idea of happiness as the ultimate good. Are Plato’s and Aristotle’s conceptions of ultimate good compatible or fundamentally different?
2. Philosophy versus Relativism. How is the debate with Thrasymachus a refutation of cultural relativism (right and wrong are whatever society says they are) and personal relativism (right and wrong are whatever each individual thinks they are)? First, explain what is Thrasymachus’s definition of justice and why it could be considered relativism. Then, explain how Socrates’s arguments expose contradictions in Thrasymachus’s position, referring to his demonstration of the true concept of the art of ruling and/or his demonstration of the identity of justice and wisdom. Finally, discuss how the band of thieves argument can serve as a refutation of even personal relativism.