An annotated bibliography consists of a list of Works Cited

An annotated bibliography consists of a list of Works Cited entries, each followed by a paragraph of summary and a few sentences explaining how you plan to use that information in your speech. This is the best way to prepare to write a research-based speech because locating, reading, and annotating your sources early will help you to better understand the debate at hand, begin forming mini- summaries that you might be able to use in your essay, and select passages that you will quote in your final speech. An additional bonus of putting together an annotated bibliography is that when you are done, you will have a rough outline of your speech and a head start on your Works Cited page.

  1. Find, read, and annotate your sources. The requirement is three sources–one source should come from professional, academic, or scholarly articles written for peer-reviewed publications. You can locate these by using one of the approved MDC library databases (please keep in mind that you are required to have a total of 4 sources for your full-preparation scripts). However, for this assignment you don’t need to annotate ALL your sources.
  2. Create Works Cited entries for each of the sources. The citations for each article should be typed, double-spaced, and arranged alphabetically by authors’ last names, according to APA style guidelines. The owl Purdue website is an excellent source for citation. You can find a link for this in your Blackboard Course entitled APA-Style Help. A word of caution here, do not blindly trust computer-generated Works Cited entries.
  3. Following each citation, you should write a one-paragraph description of that work, beginning with a full signal phrase and one-sentence paraphrased summary, and indicating the thesis, conclusion, and any important details.
  4. In your summary paragraph, quote at least one passage from each article using a signal phrase and parenthetical citation. Remember to provide in-text citations for specific paraphrased information as well.
  5. Next, write a short paragraph (a couple sentences) describing how you intend to use that author’s ideas and connecting them to ideas from the other articles you have found, if possible. How will the source function in your paper? What role will it play? Decide which details or passages from the article will be most helpful for putting together your paper.
  6. Double-space the Works Cited entries and single-space the annotations (the summary paragraphs that follow each entry).


See reverse for a sample Works Cited entry followed by sample annotation paragraphs.

A successful Annotated Bibliography Assignment:

  •   Follows the instructions on this assignment sheet exactly
  •   Cites and annotates the required number and type of sources for the specified assignment
    (found on the first page of this document).
  •   Includes a double-spaced APA-formatted Works Cited entry for each source, alphabetizes entries by authors’ last names
  •   Includes at least a one single-spaced paragraph that summarizes the main argument and any relevant details from each source)
  •   Begins each summary paragraph with a full signal phrase and one-sentence paraphrase of the article’s overall main point (topic + stance + reasons)
  •   Includes one quote from each article, introduced with a short signal phrase and followed by a parenthetical citation if the source has page numbers
  •   Includes parenthetical citations for any specific paraphrased details
  •   Includes one single-spaced short paragraph explaining how the source’s information will be used in the final project and how it relates to the information in the other sources (three total)
  •   Uses formal academic English
    Below is an example of one annotation
    Glassner, B. (2004). Narrative techniques of fear mongering. Social Research, 71(4), winter, 819-826. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from http://search.
    In “Narrative Techniques of Fear Mongering,” Barry Glassner notes that the news media and politicians sell fear to the public in order to reap financial and political benefits. Fear mongers employ three main techniques for narrating and promoting fear. The first is repetition; by sheer volume, those who sell fear are able to bombard the public with scare stories that will make them consume products and vote in certain ways (Glassner, p. 820). The second technique is what Glassner calls “christening isolated incidents as trends” (p. 822). By claiming that a freak occurrence is a “trend,” the politicians and media are able to peddle their product of fear. The third technique that Glassner points out is “misdirection,” or highlighting a lesser danger in order to conceal more ominous ones (p. 823). Glassner’s main point is that our fears are being manipulated in the interests of those in positions of power.
    For my purposes, Glassner’s ideas will work very well with my discussion of the narrative nature of the education system, as noted by Paulo Freire. Also, it seems that Glassner would agree with

Freire that if our education system was based more on a communicative approach to learning, then we might not be as susceptible to these “narrative techniques.”

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